What species of grapevine do nearly all wines come from?

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Vitis vinifera, the common grape vine, is a species of Vitis, native to the Mediterranean region, Central Europe, and southwestern Asia, from Morocco and Portugal north to southern Germany and east to northern Iran. There are currently between 5,000 and 10,000 varieties of Vitis vinifera grapes though only a few are of commercial significance for wine and table grape production.

What are the characteristics of grapes grown in warmer climates?

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Climate can have a defining impact on the characteristics of the grapes. Generally speaking, the colder it is, the lower the levels of sugar and the higher the levels of acidity in the grapes. At the other extreme, the warmer it is, the higher the levels of sugar and the lower the levels of acidity in the grapes. The grapes' flavours also taste riper in warmer climates.

Which ingredient is added to begin the fermentation process?

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Yeast is added to the grape juice and fermentation starts. This can take place in stainless steel tanks or oak barrels.

Typically, what alcohol percentage is fortified wine?

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Fortified wines have had extra alcohol added to them and they therefore have higher levels of alcohol ranging from 15% to 22%. Examples of fortified wine include Sherry from Spain and Port from Portugal.

Which of these flavours are typically attributed to Sauvignon Blanc?

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Sauvignon Blanc produces dry wines that have a pronounced intensity of aromas and refreshingly high acidity. Sauvignon Blanc wines are medium-bodied and have aromas of green fruit (apple), citrus (lemon, grapefruit) and herbaceous notes (asparagus, green bell pepper, cut grass).

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